DiagnosisThe initial approach to the problem of infertility usually begins with a series of basic tests: in women, clinical tests to check hormone levels, pelvic examination and ultrasound evaluation. In men the most important is a semen analysis to assess sperm quality.
Here is a more detailed description of some of the most frequently performed tests in the diagnostic process for infertile couples:
- Hormone tests to check for ovulation and ovarian reserve;
- Ultrasound to observe the state of the ovaries and uterus, as well as the potential follicular development (to check for the possibility of an oocyte development within each of ovarian follicles);
- Hysterosalpingography - an X-ray analysis to check the status of the fallopian tubes;
- Diagnostic Hysteroscopy - a probe with a tiny video camera is used to observe the womb and check whether there are problems, such as polyps;
- It may be necessary to remove a small sample of the endometrium for laboratory analysis.
- Semen analysis for evaluating various parameters of sperm quality: sperm concentration and number, physical characteristics of sperm, sperm motility, morphology, etc....;
- Test for the presence of sperm antibodies, which may prevent the sperm from fertilising the oocyte;
- Sperm migration test to see if sperm can swim through the cervical mucus and remain active and capable of fertilisation;
- Sperm DNA fragmentation test and HBA test – to better understand the sperm DNA integrity and the real possibility of a spontaneous pregnancy.