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Treatments

IVF - In vitro fertilisation

In vitro fertilisation (IVF)
The birth of the first child conceived through a Assisted Reproductive Technologies was in 1978, in England, from an In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) treatment. Today, hundreds of thousands of IVF cycles are performed worldwide, this being a safe procedure and with an excellent success rate.

Today’s assisted reproductive technology treatments are complex procedures, constantly evolving in the light of scientific and medical advances. Prior to the science and medical knowledge we currently have access to, fertility treatment consisted of advising patients to examine and/or change lifestyle regimes and basic pelvic examinations to assess any anatomical anomalies.

Today, the reality is far different. In In vitro fertilisation (IVF), the oocytes are collected from the ovaries, and then fertilised with sperm in a laboratory environment. One or two of the embryos then obtained are transferred to the woman's womb in a fresh cycle; unlike the process of IUI, IVF takes place outside the woman’s body. The widely used label "test tube baby" arises because the oocytes are fertilised in the laboratory, contrary to what happens naturally. IVF can be used in situations of unexplained infertility, obstruction or absence of the Fallopian tubes, and after the failure of previous first line (IUI, timed coitus) treatments.

Brief description of the treatment

1. Ovarian Stimulation and Control

After the first medical appointment, the woman begins to be treated with ovulation-stimulating drugs, administered by subcutaneous injections. These drugs (similar to hormones that are naturally produced in women) will stimulate the ovaries to produce more oocytes than usual. The development of oocytes is then controlled by periodic ultrasound examinations and blood tests (to assess levels of spacifichormones). When the doctor considers that the follicles are sufficiently developed, the prescribe the injection of another hormone (human chorionic gonadotropin - hCG), whose role is to trigger the release of the oocytes from the ovarian follicles.

At this stage timing has a key role: the oocyte pick-up (retrieving oocytes from the ovaries) should be made 35 to 36 hours after the hCG administration. It is very important that patients strictly respect the timings given by the doctor for the administration of the injections as a mistake at this stage could jeopardise the whole treatment process.

 At Ferticentro we take special care with this phase of the process - our clinical team accompanies the couples for 24 hours, to ensure that all doubts are cleared and the medicines are administered correctly and at the right time.

 

2. Oocyte pickup

The oocyte pick-up is carried out under ultrasound monitoring and involves the introduction into the vagina of a very fine needle that will allow the collection of oocytes from each of the ovaries. This operation is performed under sedation and takes around 15 minutes. From the day of the egg retrieval, the woman starts taking 2 tablets of progesterone every 8 hours, in order to prepare the endometrium for a successful embryo implantation. On the same day as the oocyte retrieval, the man will be asked to collect sperm in the clinic, so that it can be used in the treatment (although the use of frozen sperm is also possible). Once obtained, the sperm is centrifuged at high speed and subjected to a series of treatment processes in order to select the strongest and most viable spermatozoa. After the oocyte pick-up, the oocytes are transferred into special culture media in the laboratory, and subsequently brought in contact with the sperm for fertilisation to occur, resulting in the formation of embryos. On the day following the oocyte pick-up, our embryologists will call you to inform about the fertilisation process and arrange the scheduling of the embryo transfer.

 

 

3. Embryo Transfer

On the Embryo transfer day, usually two to five days after fertilization, the embryos (usually two) are transferred into the womb of the woman, where they can implant and originate a pregnancy. In cases where there are several good quality embryos that are ready to transfer or their further analysis is required the transfer may be made on the fifth day. At Ferticentro this extended embryo culture has no additional costs for the couple as it is a technical decision taken in each case.


It is recommended to avoid intense physical activity for five days following the embryo transfer. Women can travel by car or plane after transfer, but should avoid any physical activity such as lifting. This type of precaution is advised in the interest of best practice rather than based on any scientific evidence – we encourage all our patients to take some time out to encourage nature to do its work.

 


4. Embryo Cryopreservation

Any viable surplus embryos that are not used in the fresh treatment can be frozen and used later in a subsequent frozen embryo transfer cycle (i.e., for a second child, or if the first attempt fails); may be donated for scientific research; can be donated to another couple or may be destroyed, depending on the patients' decision and the conditions laid down by law.


The pregnancy test should be done 2 weeks after embryo transfer. We advise all women to have a blood pregnancy test as a preferred alternative to using urinary markers. A blood test will be more accurate and provide relevant information regarding the treatment.

Treatment cost

To find out more about treatment costs, please fill our contact form.

Additional information:

  • Like any medical treatment, IVF can cause adverse reactions. Whilst receiving treatment at  Ferticentro all couples are closely monitored by the attending physician (who will always be contactable via mobile phone) and all procedures are performed in accordance with the strictest international safety standards, it is important that couples are aware that less pleasant situations can exist and that these, although rare, are also part of the practice of medicine.

    Adverse reactions to drugs used in IVF cycles are rare and are generally moderate and transient. The most common are hot flushes, irritability, fatigue and headaches. These usually pass after a short time and are not a cause for alarm. In case of worsening or persistent symptoms, we recommend that you contact your Ferticentro physician accompanying your treatment. In some rare cases (less than 1% ) Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome, which is an excessive and potentially dangerous reaction to the drugs used in ovarian stimulation, can occur. In these situations there is accumulation of fluid and formation of cysts in the ovaries. The main symptoms are: pelvic and / or abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and shortness of breath. This is a serious reaction, which should be immediately reported to the attending physician. In more severe cases, treatment may be interrupted or hospitalisation may be required. If Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome occurs after the oocyte pick-up, we do not make the transfer and freeze all the embryos that were obtained so that their subsequent use is possible. It is also possible to freeze all the oocytes obtained, with excellent survival rates.

     

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